This week, we learned about drugs.
We were also warned not to take drugs. Here are our answers for AE9.
In allergy sufferers, histamine causes runny noses, red eyes, and other symptoms. Here is its structural formula
- Give the chemical formula for this compound
- Circle the amine functional groups in histamine
- Which part(s) of the molecule make the compound water soluble?
Amine groups present in the molecule
Antihistamines are widely used drugs for treating symptoms of allergies caused by reactions to histamine compounds. This class of drugs competes with histamine, occupying receptor sites on cells normally occupied by histamines. Here is the structure for a particular antihistamine,
- Give the chemical formula of this compound
- What similarities do you see berry this structure and that of histamine (shown in the question 1) that would allow the antihistamine to compete with histamine?
Ethylamine and heterocyclic system,
Consider this statement. “Drugs can be broadly classed into two groups: those that produce a physiological response in the body and those that inhibit the growth of substances that cause infections.” Into with class does each of these drugs fall?
- Aspirin (physiological response)
- (Keflex) Antibiotic (inhibit the growth of substances)
- Amphetamine (physiological response)
- Morphine (physiological response)
- Estrogen (physiological response)
- Penicillin (inhibit the growth of substances)
Herbal or alternative medicines are not regulated in the same way as prescription or OTC medicines. In particular, the issues of concern are identification and quantification of the active ingredient, quality control in manufacture, and side effects when the herbal remedy is used in conjunction with another alternative or prescription medicine.
- What do you think is the evidence for herbal supplement manufacturers that address these issues?
Herbal supplements are regulated by FDA (in the USA) but not as drugs or as foods. They fall under the category of dietary supplements. There is a comprehensive list of regulations on dietary supplements on the FDA website. This provides assurance that herbal supplements meet certain quality standards and that the FDA can intervene to remove dangerous products from the market.
- Do you know anything about Singapore’s legislation on the topic?
In Singapore, herbal supplements are categorised as health supplements. Currently, health supplements can be imported and sold without a license from Health Science Authority (HSA). There are guidelines to be followed, but no legislation for herbal supplements.