Coal fired power plants produce large amounts of SO2 gas when they burn coal. This is because coal has 1-6% sulphur content. When SO2 gas gets into the atmosphere, they react with Oxygen to form SO3. SO3 can react with water to form sulfuric acid aerosols.These aerosols reflect sunlight and thus cause poor visibility.
Normal rainfall has a PH of around 5.6
As PH is a logarithmic (log base 10) scale a PH difference of 1 is a 10 times difference in acidity.
The rainfall that is 10 times more acidic than usual will have a PH of 4.6
a)Hanging the laundry to dry clothes instead of using the dryer reduces electricity consumption.This will decrease the burning of fuel and will decrease SOx emission.
b)Walking,biking or taking public transportation will decrease the number of vehicles on the road,thus decreasing the emission of NOx.
c)Running the dishwasher and washing machine at full load will help to conserve energy.The reduction of electricity consumption will reduce the burning of fuel, decreasing SOx emission.
d)Adding additional insulation will ensure we are not wasting energy in the form of heat loss.If water heater and pipes are properly insulated,lesser electricity will be used,thus decreasing SOx emission.
e)Buying locally grown produce and locally produced food will help reduce the demand of importing overseas goods and there will be lesser transportation.This will decrease the emission of NOx.
| CH3COOH Acetic Acid
|HC6H7O6 Ascorbic Acid
|HC7H5O5 Gallic Acid
|HC9H7O4 Acetylsalicylic Acid
|Turn litmus red/pink
||Turn litmus blue
Acid rain has become more serious over the past 20 years and is polluting the rivers and streams of Singapore with more acidic content. This has put many animal species through tremendous amounts of stress to adapt to their changing environments and may cause the extinction of up to 20 of Singapore’s native species such as frogs, crabs, and fish. In the long run, acid rain may also corrode limestone or calcium structures in Singapore and cause destruction in Singapore’s ecosystem by weakening trees and surrounding soil, causing the trees to be vulnerable to disease and insects and upsetting the food chain.
Acid deposition, are forms of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms which includes rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic. Acid deposition occurs both within and outside Singapore, with majority of acid deposition occurring outside Singapore, from industrialized countries such as America. Regionally, seasonal increase in the acid deposition comes from the burning of forests in Indonesia. Within Singapore, nitrous oxides from vehicle emissions and sulfur oxides coming from industries also contribute to acid deposition.