Application Exercise 9

  1. In allergy sufferers, histamine causes runny noses, red eyes and other symptoms.

(a) Give the chemical formula for this compound


(b) Circle the amine functional groups in histamine

(      runny-noses-red-eyes-symp-chapter-10-problem-9q-solution-9780077418465-exc)

(c) Which part (or parts) of the molecule make the compound water-soluble

The N-H Bonds

2. Antihistamines are widely used drugs for treating symptoms of allergies caused  by reactions to histamine compounds. This class of drug competes with histamine,  occupying receptor sites on cells normally occupied by histamine. Here is the      structure for a particular antihistamine

(a) Give the chemical formula for this compound


(b) What similarities do you see between this structure and that of histamine that          would allow the antihistamine to compete with histamine?

 Both compounds have presence of N-C-N bonds

3. Consider this statement. “Drugs can be broadly classes into two groups: those      that produce a physiological response in the body and those that inhibit the            growth of substances that cause infections.” Into which class does each of these    drugs fall?

Physiological response in the body: Aspirin, morphine, estrogen,     amphetamine 

Inhibit growth of substances that cause infections: (Keflex) antibiotic & Penicillin

4. Herbal or alternative medicines are not regulated in the same way as prescription or OTC medicines. In particular, the issues of concern are identification and quantification of the active ingredient, quality control in manufacture, and side effects when the herbal remedy is used in conjunction with another alternative or prescription medicine.

(a) What do you think is the evidence from herbal supplement manufactureres that address these issues?

But since they became widely available in 1994, the FDA and some independent researchers have found problems with some dietary supplements. Products like herbs are sometimes tainted with germs, pesticides, or toxic heavy metals. Other supplements do not contain what’s listed on the label. Still others contain more or less than the amount of the herb listed on the label. And many have ingredients that aren’t listed on the label at all.

This problem extends beyond the supplement makers and sellers. Some herbal suppliers (those who grow, harvest, or sell the crops) may mix or even substitute their crops with less expensive or more readily available plants. There’s also the problem of accidental contamination, when one plant grows in with others, as well as cases of mistaken identity (when one plant looks like another). Given the global market, all of these problems can make it harder for a company to be sure that what they thought they were buying to make supplements is actually the herb they wanted.

In 2013 researchers in Toronto published a report in which they sampled and analyzed 44 herbal supplements. The supplements were sold in both the US and Canada, and labeled as containing single herbs. Using DNA bar coding analysis, less than half the supplements (48%) contained any of the herb listed on the label. More than half of the supplements contained something that wasn’t on the label (substitutions or fillers). Even among the samples that contained the herb on the label, many also contained fillers or contaminants.

(b) Do you know anything about Singapore’s Legislation on the topic.

Singapore’s legislation encourage product to label its basic supplemental facts:

(1) Name of health supplement product

(2) Names and quantities of active ingredients

(3) Product indications and intended purpose

(4) Recommended daily dosage

(5) Instructions on proper usage

(6) Pack size

(7) Batch No

(8) Expiry Date

(9) Names on inactive ingredients

(10) Name and address of manufacturer and packer

(11) Name and address of dealers

(12) Precautionary label and statement when necessary.