Application Exercises 15th March 2017

  1. Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky is in close proximity to the coal-fired electric utility in the Ohio Valley. Noting this, the National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA) reported that this national park had the poorest visibility of any in the country.a. What is the connection between coal-fired plants and poor visibility?Coal-fired plants release sulphur dioxide, creating sulphate particles theatre responsible for 60 – 85% of poor visibility in eastern parks.b. The NCPA reported “the average rainfall in Mammoth Cave National Park is 10 times more acidic than natural.” From this information and that in your text, estimate the pH of rainfall in the park.Normal rain has a pH range of 5 – 6. If the rainfall in the park is 10 times more acidic, the pH range must be in the range of 4 – 5.
  2. Here are some examples of what an individual might do to reduce acid rain. For each, explain the connection to producing acid rain.a. Hang your laundry to dry it.Requires less energy than using a clothes dryer. For an electric dryer cutting down on energy use cut down on the needs of power companies to produce electricity by burning coal.b. Walk, bike, or take public transport to work.

    Amount of NO emitted in the air is reduced. Hence, reducing acid rain.

    c. Avoid running dishwashers and washing machines with small loads.

    By washing dishes in the traditional way and using washing machine to wash the full load instead of small loads for a few times help to reduce the need of electricity, hence reducing the need of power-supply plant to burn coal which may contain sulfur.

    d. Add additional insulation on hot water heaters and pipes.

    Improve energy efficiency.

    e. Buy locally grown produce and locally produced food.

    There will be less need to import overseas grown and produced food. Thus, reducing the needs for transportation of goods and reducing NO.

  3. a. Give names and chemical formulas for five acids and five bases.
    5 acids: Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric acid  (HNO3) ,Carbonic acid (H3CO2), Hydrogen Bromide (HBr),Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    5 bases: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH),Ammonia ( NH3 ),Calcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2  ), Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)b. Name three observable properties generally associated with acids and bases.Acids: taste sour, turn blue litmus paper red, corrosive to metals such as iron and aluminium
    Bases: soapy feeling, taste bitter, turn red litmus paper blue
  4. The concerns of acid rain vary across the globe. Many countries in North America and Europe have websites dealing with acid rain. Either search to locate one (“Canada, acid rain”) or use these links to websites in Canada, the UK, or Europe. What are the issues in Singapore? Does the acid deposition originate outside or inside the Singapore’s borders?Power plants in Singapore (coal, oil and gas) release sulphur into the atmosphere, which is extremely poisonous. Sulphur can mix into the clouds and dissolve into the rain, which produces acid rain. It is very dangerous as it corrodes many rocks and materials which is also harmful to lakes and rivers.Corrode buildings overtime in Singapore and cause drinking water to be acidic. Acid deposition in soil will harm trees and plants, leading to loss of habitat for some animals.Can be originated from both within Singapore borders or pollutants from other countries can be transported by wind and cause acid rain