Particulate Matter

Particulate Matter is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets. It can be classified into 2 groups, PM2.5 and PM10. The difference between them is the measurement of particle size. PM2.5 refers to particles with size of less than 2.5 μm while PM10 refers to particles with size of less than 10 μm. Hence, with a smaller size, PM2.5 particles implicates heart diseases while PM10 particles affects the lungs.

Application Exercises 8th Feb 2017

From personal experience, state whether these processes are endothermic or exothermic. Give a reason for each. a) A charcoal briquette burnns b) Water evaporates from your skin c) Ice melts a) Exothermic. Burning of charcoal releases heat to surroundings. b) Endothermic. Water needs to absorb the heat from the skin for evaporation to occur. c) Endothermic. Ice requires energy to be absorbed to break the lattice structure to melt. Chemical explosions are very exothermic reactions. Describe the relative bond strengths […]

Application Exercises 15th Feb 2017

Understanding the Earth’s energy balance is essential to understanding the issue of global warming. For example, the solar energy striking Earth’s surface averages 168 watts per square meter (W/m2), but the energy leaving Earth’s surface averages 390 W/m2. Why isn’t Earth cooling rapidly? Some of the energy emitted from the Earth’s surface goes directly out to the space, while most of it doesn’t. The clouds and gases in the atmosphere reabsorb the emitted energy, causing some of it to be […]

Application Exercises 22nd Feb 2017

How can you purify your water when you’re are hiking? Name 2 or 3 possibilities. Compare these methods in terms of cost and effectiveness. Are any of these methods similar to those used to purify municipal water supplies? Boiling water can be used as it is the most certain way of killing microorganisms. Potable Aqua Iodine and clear plastic bottle in sunlight to let UV rays kill bacteria can also be used. Boiling water is a cheaper alternative. Potable Aqua […]

Application Exercises 15th March 2017

Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky is in close proximity to the coal-fired electric utility in the Ohio Valley. Noting this, the National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA) reported that this national park had the poorest visibility of any in the country.a. What is the connection between coal-fired plants and poor visibility?Coal-fired plants release sulphur dioxide, creating sulphate particles theatre responsible for 60 – 85% of poor visibility in eastern parks.b. The NCPA reported “the average rainfall in Mammoth Cave National […]

Application Exercise 22nd March 2017

When Styrofoam packing peanuts are immersed in acetone (the primary component in some nail-polish removers), they dissolve. If the acetone is allowed to evaporate, a solid remains. the solid still consists of Styrofoam, but now it is solid and much denser. Explain.Gas of the foaming agent is given out when acetone dissolves the polymer. the polymer then collapses and become denser. Consider Spectra, Allied-Signal Corporation’s HDPE fiber, used as liners for surgical gloves. Although the Spectra liner has a very […]

Application Exercise 9

In allergy sufferers, histamine causes runny noses, red eyes and other symptoms. (a) Give the chemical formula for this compound C5H9N3 (b) Circle the amine functional groups in histamine (      runny-noses-red-eyes-symp-chapter-10-problem-9q-solution-9780077418465-exc) (c) Which part (or parts) of the molecule make the compound water-soluble The N-H Bonds 2. Antihistamines are widely used drugs for treating symptoms of allergies caused  by reactions to histamine compounds. This class of drug competes with histamine,  occupying receptor sites on cells normally occupied by […]